Reversing Everything

Yet another reverse engineering blog

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Kindle 2 tidbits

I’ve been a bit busy recently and couldn’t follow my favorite ebook forum as closely as I wanted. Also, it seems to have exploded with the release of Kindle 2. I don’t have the device myself and don’t plan to buy it, but I did notice a few things when skimming the forums.

1) Firmware updates
Apparently Amazon didn’t change the obfuscation for the firmware updates and an enterprising person patched my update maker for K2 to make an “update” which sets up a custom screensaver (apparently the K1 shortcut have been disabled).

2) USB network
Apparently K2 includes a USBnet module which can be enabled with a debug command. This allows, for example, to use a PC internet connection instead of Whispernet, or to connect to services running on the Kindle. Telnet is possible, but it needs to be installed on the device first.

3) Kindle for iPhone
Amazon released an iPhone application, and it is now possible use an iPhone or iPod touch instead of Kindle to buy and read ebooks from Amazon. Someone was quick to discover that a small change in allows one to produce a PID for the iPhone and read library books (or remove DRM from purchased books) the same way as with Kindle. A few days later Amazon removed serial numbers from the “Manage my Kindle” page, probably to try closing this “hole”. It worked for about two hours.

P.S. I did find some time to work on my scripts.
1) Updated and to support iPhone serials and fix the metadata corruption problem. Download.
2) Made a combined Kindle firmware update tool. It can extract a firmware update or make a new one, for Kindle 1 or Kindle 2 (K2 untested). Download.

Sunday, December 21, 2008

PRS-700 internals and disassembly

I already knew a bit about PRS-700 internals from the sources published by Sony, but looking inside allowed me to confirm guesses and find out some new things. So what's new in PRS-700?

The main change is the CPU - Sony switched from iMXL to iMX31L. It is much faster (up to 532MHz instead of 200MHz) and has an ARM11 core (with ARMv6 instruction set) versus ARM9 in iMXL. It also includes USB2.0 OTG controller and SDHC/MS controllers, which allowed Sony to get rid of separate USB and flash card controller chips, though they did have to add an NXP ISP1504 USB tranciever.
Another chip they dumped is the 2MB NOR flash which housed the bootloader and some other rarely updated info. Now everything is stored on the NAND flash, which doubled in size (512MB instead of 256MB). RAM size was also doubled to 128MB.
The E-Ink controller is now Epson/E-Ink's "Broadsheet" S1D13521 (was E-Ink's Metronome), which has its own separate 8MB of RAM for extra display speed. Asahi Kasei DAC got replaced by Wolfson's WM8350 codec, which also includes power management, battery control and real-time clock. The sub-CPU which handles keys and touch screen is now a 16-bit Renesas R8C/2A, replacing the 8-bit H8/38004.
On software side, Linux kernel was upgraded to 2.6.23 (compiled with gcc 4.2) from 2.4.17 (gcc 2.95.3), and glibc got replaced by uClibc.

See my Flickr gallery for step-by-step PRS-700 disassembly guide. It was a bit trickier than PRS-505, so take care. When assembling, make sure there is nothing between E-Ink and touch screen, any foreign particles stand out really good when you turn on the built-in light.

Friday, December 21, 2007

Hacking the Kindle part 3: root shell and runtime system

Root Shell

After I downloaded and extracted the root fs image, I quickly ran the /etc/shadow file though John the Ripper. In a moment it displayed the root password: "fiona" (which is the codename for the Kindle, by the way). Alas, it didn't work when I tried entering into console. Also, adding "init=/bin/sh" or "single" to the kernel boot arguments didn't work either.
So I started to poke around with the firmware update and after some time was able to run a script which mounted the read-write part of root filesystem and dumped the /etc/shadow from it. Unsurprisingly, it had a different password hash. Apparently the root password is changed somewhere before shipping to the end user. So I quickly adapted the script to replace the shadow file on the device with the original one.
You can find that implementation in this update maker zip.

After replacing the shadow file and a reboot, I was able to get in.

Output of some commands.

[root@kindle root]#ls -la /
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 592 Oct 30 2007 bin
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 1 00:00 dev
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Oct 30 2007 etc -> opt/etc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 3 Oct 30 2007 home
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 3 Oct 30 2007 initrd
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 586 Oct 30 2007 lib
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 11 Oct 30 2007 linuxrc -> bin/busybox
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 34 Oct 30 2007 mnt
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 1024 Nov 5 2007 opt
dr-xr-xr-x 101 root root 0 Jan 1 15:42 proc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 506 Oct 30 2007 sbin
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 0 Jan 1 15:42 sys
drwxrwxrwx 5 root root 0 Jan 1 15:44 tmp
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 95 Oct 30 2007 usr
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 55 Oct 30 2007 var

[root@kindle root]# mount
devfs on /dev type devfs (rw)
/dev/bml0/6 on / type squashfs (ro)
/dev/stl0/8 on /opt type ext3 (rw,sync,noatime,nodiratime)
/proc on /proc type proc (rw,nodiratime)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devfs on /dev type devfs (rw)
usbdevfs on /proc/bus/usb type usbdevfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
tmpfs on /tmp type tmpfs (rw)
/dev/bml0/7 on /mnt/dc type squashfs (ro)

[root@kindle root]# ps -A f
1 ? S 0:01 [swapper]
2 ? SN 0:00 [ksoftirqd/0]
3 ? S< 0:00 [events/0]
4 ? S< 0:00 \_ [khelper]
20 ? S< 0:10 \_ [kblockd/0]
87 ? S 0:02 \_ [pdflush]
89 ? S< 0:00 \_ [aio/0]
86 ? S 0:00 \_ [pdflush]
10 ? S 0:00 [sleepd]
33 ? S 0:00 [khubd]
88 ? S 0:00 [kswapd0]
676 ? S 0:12 [voltd]
678 ? S 0:02 [pnlcd_animate]
681 ? S 0:00 [kseriod]
710 ? S 0:00 [wantph]
709 ? S 0:00 [wanend]
721 ? S 0:00 [mmcdd]
727 ? S 0:00 [hpdetd]
740 ? Ss 0:00 init
1116 tts/2 Ss 0:00 \_ -sh
2344 tts/2 R+ 0:00 \_ ps -A f
831 ? S 0:00 [kjournald]
884 ? S 0:03 /sbin/syslogd -m 0 -b 1 -S -s 250
887 ? S 0:01 /sbin/klogd
976 ? S 0:00 [eink_fb_apt]
974 ? S 0:04 [eink_fb_udt]
975 ? S 0:00 [eink_fb_sst]
1023 ? S 0:07 [f-s-gadget]
1024 ? S 0:00 [f-s-activity]
1063 ? S 0:00 [wdtpmd]
1071 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/watchdogd -k 9 -t 30
1079 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/netwatchd -d 20 -t 5 -p
1086 ? S 0:03 /usr/sbin/nomkd -v 80 -r 44 -d 23 cvm
1092 ? S 0:00 crond -l 9 -c /etc/crontab
1097 ? S 0:00 /bin/sh /usr/sbin/tphmonitor
1101 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/sbin/tphserver -f
1119 ? S 0:00 /bin/sh /usr/sbin/execmonitor
1128 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/sbin/execserver
1123 ? S 0:00 /bin/sh /opt/amazon/ebook/bin/run_framework
1169 ? S 0:00 \_ /bin/sh /opt/amazon/ebook/bin/
1173 ? SL 0:18 \_ /usr/java/bin/cvm -Xmx16m -Dsun.boot.library.path=/opt/usr/java/lib:/usr/java/lib -cp :/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/MobiCore-impl.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/MobipocketCoreReader.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/ReaderSDK.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/SearchSDK.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/framework-api.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/framework-impl.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/jdbm.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/json.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/kxml2.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/lib/xyml.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/AudiblePlayer.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/AudioPlayer.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/Browser.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/ContentManager.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/Demo.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/Experimental.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/Home.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/MobiReader.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/PictureViewer.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/PrefBooklet.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/Search.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/XymlBooklet.jar:/opt/amazon/ebook/booklet/msp.jar:/opt/usr/java/lib/libjnisystem.jar -Ddebug=1 -Dcheck_comm_stack=true -Dhttp.keepalive.timeout=60000 -Dhttp.maxConnections=16 -Dallow_demo=false -Dawt_fb_enable=0 -Dextkeyboard=false -Dconfig=/opt/amazon/ebook/config/framework-unix.conf -DENABLE_SEARCH_INDEXING_THREAD=true -Dprintdebugtime=false
(around 30 cvm copies skipped)
2298 ? S 0:00 [mmcqd]

As you can see, /opt is writable and so is /etc which points to it. On factory reset, the writable partition is populated from /usr/default/opt.tar.gz file.

Here's the full listing of the filesystem:

Bonus content

The main GUI and most of the back-end code is written in Java. The framework is quite elaborate and can be extended with extra "booklets".
After spending some time investigating it with JAD, I found some undocumented shortcuts, features and easter eggs. Here's a more or less complete list.

Picture viewer

I'm not sure why Amazon didn't make it public (maybe because paging is kinda slow), but there is a basic picture viewer in Kindle.
To activate it:
1) make a folder called "pictures" in the root of Kindle drive or SD card. Kindle also checks for "dcim" made by cameras.
2) put your pictures for a single "book" into a folder inside that. The subfolder name will be used as the "book" name. Supported formats are jpg, png, gif.
3) in Home screen press Alt-Z. A new "book" should appear. Open it to view your pictures.
4) In the local menu you can toggle dithering, resize to fit and full screen mode.

Keyboard shortcuts

Various undocumented/underdocumented keyboard shortcuts. I italicized most interesting ones.

Global keys

Alt-Shift-R reboot Kindle
Alt-Shift-. restart GUI
Alt-Shift-G make screenshot
due to an implementation bug, screenshots can only be stored on SD card, not the main storage. A gif file is saved in the card root.
Shift-Sym start demo
Enabled only if allow_demo=true is passed on the Java commandline. Needs a special demo script present on the SD card.


Alt-Shift-M Minesweeper
Alt-Z rescan picture directories
Alt-T show time


Alt-B toggle bookmark
Alt-T spell out time
Alt-0 enable/disable slideshow
Alt-1 start slideshow (if enabled)
Alt-2 stop slidehow
Alt-PageForward/PageBackward go to next/prev annotation or one "chunk" (1/20th of a book) forward or backward


411 show diagnostics data
511 run loopback call test
611 diagnostic data service call
126 Lab126 team members

Font List

J show/hide justification options

Picture viewer

Alt-Shift-0 set current picture as screensaver
F toggle fullscreen mode


I,J,K,L up,left,down,right
M mark mine
R restart
Space open cell
Scroll move cursor up/down
Alt-Scroll move cursor left/right
H return to Home screen

Text input

Alt-Backspace clear all
Alt-H/Alt-J move cursor
(the following don't work in search field for some reason)
Alt-6 ?
Alt-7 ,
Alt-8 :
Alt-9 "
Alt-0 '


It seems there is a location capability (GPS?) in the CDMA module. I cannot check it as I'm not in USA but the following shortcuts are programmed inside the browser.
Alt-1 show current location in google maps
Alt-2 find gas station nearby
Alt-3 find restaurants nearby
Alt-5 find custom keyword nearby
Alt-D dump debug info to the log and toggle highlight default item
Alt-Z toggle zone drawing and show log

Audio Player

Alt-F next
Alt-P play/stop

Search commands

These command work in the search field. You can enter only beginning of the command if that's enough for it to be unique.

Public commands (always available)


Semiprivate (available but not mentioned in @help)

;dumpMessages dump current debug log into the "documents" directory
;debugOn set log level=2 and enable private commands
;debugOff set log level=1 and disable private commands

Private commands
Note: following commands are clearly not intended for end users. Some of them may damage your Kindle and void your warranty. Enter at your own risk.

`help list private commands
`7777 set version to TOPmk-xyz-77770 (to disable OTA updates?)
`voltLog <1|0> enable/disable voltage table debug
`batteryLoggingDelay set battery logging delay (in seconds)
`pppStop close WAN PPP connection
`allocate [MB]

Thursday, December 20, 2007

Hacking the Kindle part 2: bootloader and firmware updates


The Kindle uses Das U-Boot bootloader. To break into the interactive shell, just press any key right afer reset.
"help" gives a list of available commands

KINDLE> help
? - alias for 'help'
badblocks - print OneNAND bad block info
base - print or set address offset
bbm - BBM sub-system
bdinfo - print Board Info structure
boot - boot default, i.e., run 'bootcmd'
bootd - boot default, i.e., run 'bootcmd'
bootf - boot from various options
bootm - boot application image from memory
cmp - memory compare
coninfo - print console devices and information
cp - memory copy
crc32 - checksum calculation
dcache - enable or disable data cache
diags - execute the User Diagnostics from OneNAND
dsleep - sleep USB device controller
dwake - wake USB device controller
echo - echo args to console
erase - erase FLASH memory
exit - exit script
factory - string [lock] [LLL_RR_PP]
fatinfo - print information about filesystem
fatload - load binary file from a dos filesystem
fatls - list files in a directory (default /)
fb - framebuffer subsystem
flinfo - print FLASH memory information
gain - displays/sets the gain value
go - start application at address 'addr'
help - print online help
hsuspend - suspend the 1761 USB host controller
hwake - wake USB host controller
icache - enable or disable instruction cache
iminfo - print header information for application image
itest - return true/false on integer compare
keys - prints out hex values from device keyboard until console key is pressed
kindle - print info about Kindle's revision
load - load OneNAND page into DataRAM
loadb - load binary file over serial line (kermit mode)
loads - load S-Record file over serial line
loop - infinite loop on address range
loopw - infinite write loop on address range
mbboot - boot bootloader from MMC/SC card
md - memory display
mdc - memory display cyclic
mkboot - boot kernel & initrd from MMC/SD card
mm - memory modify (auto-incrementing)
mmcinit - init mmc card
mtest - simple RAM test
mw - memory write (fill)
mwc - memory write cyclic
nand - NAND sub-system
nboot - boot from NAND device
nm - memory modify (constant address)
ohms - calculates board resistance
onenand - print OneNAND register info
opamp - displays/sets the op-amp offset value
otp - dump/read/write OneNAND OTP
printenv- print environment variables
protect - enable or disable FLASH write protection
reboot - alias of reset to match kernel
reset - perform RESET of the CPU
run - run commands in an environment variable
rve - displays/sets the rve (reference voltage error) value
saveenv - save environment variables to persistent storage
serial - set/display board serial number in OTP
setenv - set environment variables
sleep - delay execution for some time
snuz - put PXA to sleep
test - minimal test like /bin/sh
update - update sub-system (updates images from MMC/SD card to flash)
usb_init - init USB host controller
version - print monitor version
write - write DataRAM buffer to OneNAND page

Let's see what we can do with bbm command

KINDLE> ? bbm
bbm format
- format device
bbm open
- open device
bbm eraseall
- erase all blocks
bbm erase 'start' 'end'
- erase blocks from 'start' to 'end'
bbm load image 'id' ['start']
- load image from partition 'id' into RAM;
image is loaded into RAM at location 0xA2000000
or into 'start' if 'start' is specified (in hex)
bbm save image 'id' ['start'] 'size'
- save image of 'size' to partition 'id';
image should be loaded into RAM at 0xA2000000
or into 'start' if 'start' is specified (in hex)

- Partition Info -
bbm show partition
- show partition information
bbm save partition
- save partition information
bbm del partition
- delete last partition
bbm add partition 'id 'attr' 'blocks'
- add partition 'id' of type 'attr' and of size 'blocks'
KINDLE> bbm show partition
id : Bootloaders, Diagnostics (3)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 0 (0x00000000)
no_blks : 12 (1.5 MB)
id : Standard Kernel (17)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 12 (0x00180000)
no_blks : 12 (1.5 MB)
id : Recovery Kernel (16)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 24 (0x00300000)
no_blks : 12 (1.5 MB)
id : Standard Initrd (15)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 36 (0x00480000)
no_blks : 10 (1.3 MB)
id : Recovery Initrd (14)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 46 (0x005C0000)
no_blks : 10 (1.3 MB)
id : Read-only Root Filesystem (8)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 56 (0x00700000)
no_blks : 96 (12 MB)
id : Default Content (9)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 152 (0x01300000)
no_blks : 120 (15 MB)
id : Read/Write Root Filesystem (10)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 272 (0x02200000)
no_blks : 144 (18 MB)
id : Userstore (11)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 416 (0x03400000)
no_blks : 1584 (198 MB)
id : Environment Variables (4)
attr : RW (1)
first_blk : 2000 (0x0FA00000)
no_blks : 2 (256 KB)

The diagnostics U-Boot image is stored in the first partition.
There are two kernels, standard and recovery with corresponding ramdisks. Recovery kernel is used for firmware update.
There is a read-only root filesystem and read-write part. There is a partition with default content used for factory reset.
Then there is a userstore partition, which is visible as mass storage drive over USB.

There were no commands to copy data from flash to SD/MMC, but I could load flash partitions into memory and dump that.

KINDLE> bbm load image 3
Loading partition "Bootloaders, Diagnostics" into 0xA2000000... Success
KINDLE> base a2000000
KINDLE> md.b 0 100
a2000000: 4e 69 63 6b ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff Nick............
a2000010: ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
a2000020: 0e 00 00 ea 18 f0 9f e5 2c f0 9f e5 18 f0 9f e5 ........,.......
a2000030: 18 f0 9f e5 18 f0 9f e5 18 f0 9f e5 18 f0 9f e5 ................
a2000040: 60 00 00 a2 20 01 00 a2 80 01 00 a2 e0 01 00 a2 `... ...........
a2000050: 40 02 00 a2 a0 02 00 a2 00 03 00 a2 40 03 00 a2 @...........@...
a2000060: 00 00 0f e1 80 00 c0 e3 00 f0 29 e1 7c 00 9f e5 ..........).|...
a2000070: 21 0a 40 e2 02 0c 40 e2 02 0a 40 e2 0c d0 40 e2 !.@...@...@...@.
a2000080: 70 00 9f e5 70 10 9f e5 00 20 a0 e3 00 20 80 e5 p...p.... ... ..
a2000090: 04 00 80 e2 01 00 50 e1 fb ff ff 1a e6 80 00 ea ......P.........
a20000a0: 00 00 a0 40 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ...@............
a20000b0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................
a20000c0: 28 00 1f e5 18 10 90 e5 01 10 81 e3 18 10 80 e5 (...............
a20000d0: 10 10 90 e5 02 1b 81 e2 02 1b 81 e2 0c 10 80 e5 ................
a20000e0: fe ff ff ea ef be ad de ef be ad de ef be ad de ................
a20000f0: 00 00 00 a2 20 00 00 a2 1c 56 06 a2 98 52 4a a3 .... ....V...RJ.

(Nick probaly refers to Nick Vaccaro of Lab126, who apparently was one of the main Kindle software developers. Hi Nick!)

Due to either my cable or inconsistent terminal settings, any dump of over 256 bytes was returning only some bytes in the beginning and some in the end. So I had to conjure up a little Python script to send dump commands in chunks of 256 bytes, parse the output and write it to a file. It took a few hours per partition, but in the end I was able to dump what I needed. In the initrd image of the recovery kernel I found scripts that performed firmware update and so I could reverse the update file format.

Firmware updates

Firmware update can be performed both over-the-air and from the SD card or mass storage partition.

The firmware update file should match the mask "update*.bin" and reside in the root of the userstore partition (Kindle's USB drive) or SD/MMC card. There should be only one such file present. The file consists of a header and scrambled .tar.gz file with update files.

offset size  value
0 4 signature (OTA: "FC02", manual: "FB01")
4 4 fromVersion (minimal version to update)
8 4 toVersion (maximal version to update)
0C 2 deviceCode (number in 3rd and 4th characters of the serial, i.e. 01)
0E 1 updateOptional (seems unused)
0F 1
10 32 scrambled md5 hash string of the tgz
20000 ? scrambled tgz with update files

Version value is made from the kindle version string. In my unit, it's 292-Kindle-012138 and the version value is 121380292 (12138*10000 + 292).

The manual update doesn't check any fields except signature and md5.

Scramble algorithm:
byte = rol(byte,4)^0x7A;

byte = rol(byte^0x7A,4);

The tgz should contain a text file matching the mask "update*.dat". Its lines have the following format:
id md5 filename block_count display_name

id is the ID of the flash partition to write to. I know the following numbers:
6 base RO fs (squashfs image)
7 default content (squashfs)

block_count is the number of 128K blocks to flash (see bbm show partition output above).

If id is 129, the file is considered a shell script and is executed.
If id is 128, the md5 is checked but nothing is done with the file.

I made a small Python script to assemble an update file with all checksums calculated automagically. It will be included in the next post.

To do a manual update, first put the update bin in the root of Kindle's flash drive or SD card. Then hold Home button while resetting the Kindle. In a while you will see the following menu:
Service menu
2 "Firmware Reset" clears all user-specific data and settings and returns the Kindle to factory state. I'm not sure if it will be usable without extra initialization by Amazon technicians.
3 "Exit" starts normal boot process.
0 (not shown) starts the diagnostics bootloader. Interaction is done mostly over the console, you won't see much on the Kindle screen.
1 "Firmware update" starts the manual update process.

Hacking the Kindle part 1: getting the console

From reading the sources published by Amazon, it was clear that Kindle has a console running at least during boot. And there was an unconnected port available from outside.
Debug Port
Logically, the console would be accessible there. I salvaged a flat cable with a connector from my Rio Karma dock and stripped extra conductors to bring the pin count down to 20. Next I needed a TTL-RS232 converter. I almost bought one from EBay, but then realized that I already have one in the form of a data cable for my Samsung GSM phone. I stripped the phone connector, spent some time to discover the pinout of the cable, and was ready to search for the console. With a multimeter I found grounded pins of the debug connector so I knew which ones I can skip. I then started PuTTY, set port parameters to 115200/8n1 (gleaned from source code), connected ground of the cable to the shield, and started connecting RX of the cable to every pin in order, resetting the Kindle each time. Eventually I was able to see the output of the bootloader.

check_recovery: shift-<r>ecover, shift-<u>pdate, shift-</> reset...
normal boot...

U-Boot 1.1.2 (Oct 29 2007 - 16:35:25)

*** Welcome to Kindle ***

With a bit of solder I fixed it, and then did the same with the TX wire while pressing some keys on the keyboard. As I was at the login prompt at this point, once I had the correct pin I could see the echo in the terminal. Unsurprisingly, the RX pin was right next to the TX.
I wasn't able to solder cable to the connector without shorting (the pins are 0.5mm apart!), so in the end I removed most of the pins, soldered short wires to the removed pins and inserted those I needed back into the connector.
The final pinout:
12 TX (connect PC's RX here)
11 RX (connect PC's TX here)
10 GND (also 7 and 3)

There are probably JTAG pins too, but those are a bit harder to find by trial and error. Also, I don't have a JTAG cable.

In case you want to make your own connector, you'll need:
1) a 20-pin 0.5mm pitch flat flex cable with a connector. Digikey seems to have some.
2) a TTL-RS232 or TTL-USB converter. For the former, make sure you get one that can handle 3.3V levels (i.e. MAX232 analog won't do, you'll need MAX3232 or similar). For the latter, probably any will do.

Friday, December 14, 2007

Sony Reader PRS-505 disassembly

I liked looking into the Reader much more than the Kindle.

Sony Reader PRS-505 disassembly

Kindle disassembly and internals

I know that RapidRepair published their guide recently but I found it not detailed enough, so I tried to take many pictures when disassembling my own Kindle. I hope this will be interesting.

Disassembly with step-by-step photos

Detailed internals with close-ups of various chips

Check photo notes for chip details.

P.S. After I uploaded my photos, I found this post in PC-Doctor blog. He has some notes about the chips used.